Students’ Mathematical Reasoning, Communication, and Language
Representations: A Video-Narrative Analysis

Louise C. Wilkinson, Alison L. Bailey, and Carolyn A. Maher

Learning mathematics is a complex process, requiring many conceptual lenses and rich data sources to document and
understand students’ construction of knowledge. The purpose of this article is both to introduce a unique database on students’
mathematical learning and to describe analytical techniques used to study students’ growth of the knowledge of mathematics and
Design/Approach/Methods—Our approach includes the following aspects: First, we describe a unique collection of video-taped
recordings of longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of diverse, U.S. students, learning mathematics (Video Mosaic Collaborative, VMC). Second, we introduce our analytical methods, which utilize the database for collaborative study of students’ learning. These
methods include video-narrative analyses that display fine-grained examinations of interactions among students who are solving
engaging problems that require them to reason mathematically and to represent their understandings with language and nonlanguage
forms. These analyses, referenced as VMCAnalytics, demonstrate the accessibility and flexibility of the database to study
relationships among students’ mathematics and language learning.
Findings—The findings generated are illustrated by two examples demonstrating the accessibility and flexibility of the database to
study relationships between mathematics and language learning (mathematics register).
Originality/Value—The contribution of our work is illustrated by describing the rich database; employing a collaborative research
approach; and signifying our understanding of relationships among students’ mathematical and language learning.





More Than Data: A Multivocal Inquiry into Video-Based Research on
Learning and Teaching

Sihan Xiao

This commentary aims to echo Wilkinson, Bailey, and Maher’s (this volume) arguments about the affordances of videos
and video databases in studying learning and teaching.
Design/Approach/Methods—This article illustrates a multivocal approach to the videos from the Video Mosaic Collaborative
(VMC). In particular, three mathematics teachers in Shanghai were invited to watch and discuss a set of VMC videos. Two
recurring themes concerning mathematics learning and teaching were identified in this video-cued interview and discussed in
relation to the VMC Analytics.
Findings—The VMC videos played a mediating and facilitating role in the interview, helping the teachers notice and reflect on
the mundane, implicit culture practices. Based upon this analysis, I argue that to tap into the potential of video in educational
research, we need to see videos as more than data and look for more possibilities of using them.
Originality/Value—To open and further research dialogues, this article discusses future directions of using videos in educational
research and serves as an invitation to creative explorations, indepth conversations, ethical reflections, and cross-cultural
collaborations on the use of videos in education.




Supplementary Tutoring for Compulsory Education Students in China:
Status and Trends

Haiping Xue and Chenchen Fang

The purpose of this paper is to explore the current status of, and developmental trends affecting, the participation
in supplementary tutoring by compulsory education students in China.
Design/Approach/Methods—Based on the data from the China Family Panel Study (CFPS) conducted by the Peking University
Institute of Social Science Survey in 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016, the paper uses the method of multilevel linear model to
comprehensively analyze problems involving a multilevel data structure.
Findings—The paper finds that the proportion of compulsory education students participating in supplementary tutoring (and
the expenditure on such tutoring) increased annually before declining in 2016. Students with higher socioeconomic status,
higher school quality, and better academic performance have a higher tutoring participation rate and also spend more on
tutoring. Students in China’s three northeastern provinces and eastern coastal areas have higher participation rates in tutoring
and higher tutoring expenditures.
Originality/Value—Supplementary tutoring in China already has its own developmental patterns and trends; however, few
scholars have empirically studied the developmental patterns and trends of supplementary tutoring in compulsory education
based on longitudinal survey data.




Who Is More Likely to Participate in Private Tutoring and Does It Work?:
Evidence from PISA (2015)

Xiangyi Liao and Xiaoting Huang

In recent years, private tutoring has become increasingly prevalent in China and has become both a dominant
way for students to learn after school and a major component of family educational expenditure. This paper aims to analyze the
factors that affect Chinese students’ participation in private tutoring and the effectiveness of private tutoring.
Design/Approach/Methods—We use data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 of Mainland
China area and focus specifically on science-related private tutoring. Multilevel logistic model and hierarchical linear model
based on coarsened exact matching (CEM) are used to conduct the investigations.
Findings—Empirical results show that individual level factors including student’s interest in science, educational expectations,
and school-level factors such as school autonomy, sciencerelated learning resources and school size pose a significant
influence on the likelihood of participation in private tutoring. Moreover, science-related private tutoring has not significantly
improved the overall scientific literacy scores of students. In addition, private tutoring has widened the performance gap
among students from different socioeconomic backgrounds, with students from socioeconomically advantaged family experiencing more significant gains from tutoring.

Originality/Value—These findings suggest that providing free high-quality tutoring to students from disadvantaged families
might be an effective way of promoting educational equity.



Impact of Gender, Family Factors and Exploratory Activities on Students’
Career and Educational Search Competencies in Shanghai and Hong Kong

Esther Sui-Chu Ho, Kwok Wing Sum, and Raymond Sin Kwok Wong

This study examines the career and educational search competencies (CESC), a capability which may be necessary for a
successful transition from high school to work or postsecondary education, of students from Shanghai and Hong Kong.
Design/Approach/Methods—The data for this study was taken from the Main Study of PISA 2012 in Shanghai and Hong Kong.
Regression analysis was used to examine the relative impact of different forms of career and educational exploratory activities
on students’ CESC.
Findings—Results showed a consistent pattern of socio-economic inequality in student’s self-reported CESC in the two Chinese
cities, which was largely mediated by the family capital or resources. Besides, career and educational exploratory activities
initiated by schools, enterprises or the students themselves were found to have significant positive associations with CESC
regardless of socioeconomic status.
Originality/Value—The paper provides empirical evidence for enhancing students’ career search capacity through engaging in
career exploration in the face of structural barriers. In light of this, the roles of schools, business sectors, and governments in
students’ capacity building are discussed.





Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers and County-Level Education Expenditure
in China

Bin Huang, Yunxia Dong, Jingjing Miao, and Caiqun Xu

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the impact of various types of intergovernmental fiscal transfers on local
public education expenditure at the county level in China and to estimate the leakage of categorical subsidies for rural compulsory
Design/Approach/Methods—It is a quantitative study. The paper constructs a quantile regression model and adopt data
collected in 2007 for 1,985 counties in China to examine the impact of relevant fiscal transfers.
Findings—The results reveal that most intergovernmental fiscal transfers exert a substitution effect on the local education
expenditure, whereas subsidies for rural compulsory education from the Central Government have a crowding-out effect on
education investments from local financial resources. Although the subsidy program generally narrows the education
expenditure disparity across counties, there are heterogeneous effects across different regions.
Originality/Value—The paper estimates and compares the impact of fiscal transfers on both the level and disparity of local
public education in different regions, and provides a possible explanation for the crowding-out effect of fiscal transfers in





Review of Regulatory Policies on Private Supplementary Tutoring
in China

Junyan Liu